Among the far-reaching programs of the first Stalinist five-year plans, the General Plan for the reconstruction of Moscow, adopted in 1935, overshadowed all others in terms of grandeur. Under the plan, Moscow was to be transformed almost overnight into the model capital of the world's first socialist state.
People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry on Red Square
In 1934, a construction tender was announced for the building of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry on Red Square. This grand edifice with a volume of 110,000 cubic meters spread over an area of 4 hectares would have led to a radical reconstruction of Red Square. But it was never built.
Palace of the Soviets in Moscow
The tender for the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow was one of the largest and representative architectural competitions of the last century. The idea of erecting a building in the capital of the world's first state for workers and peasants as a symbol of the "imminent triumph of communism" first appeared in the 1920s.
The tender for the Palace of the Soviets project was announced in 1931 and consisted of several stages. The Palace of Soviets was conceived as the largest building on Earth. At 415 meters high, it would have eclipsed the two tallest buildings of the day: the Eiffel Tower and the Empire State Building. But again, it was never built.
The Moskva Hotel
In 1931, Moscow City Council launched a closed tender for the construction of a 1000-room hotel, intended to be the most luxurious of its time. Of the six bids received, the project of young architectural duo L. Savelyev and O. Stapran was selected. The Moskva Hotel, as it became known, was completed in 1934.
The Palace of Technology
A tender for the Palace of Technology was announced in 1933. An area on the banks of the Moskva River was selected as the construction site. The Palace of Technology was never built.
People's Commissariat of Defense
The buildings of architect L. Rudnev are among the most prominent in Moscow. He led the design team on the project to build the high-rise edifice of Moscow State University on Lenin (now Sparrow) Hills (1953). His design project for Arbat Square, which was only partially implemented, reflects the architect's transition from the gloomy splendor of the buildings of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the 1930s to the buoyant pomposity characteristic of the architecture of the 1940s and early 50s. // Building of the People's Commissariat.
The Aeroflot building
The Aeroflot building, planned to be sited at Belorussky Station, was designed by architect D. Chechulin as a monument to the heroism of Soviet aviation. The project was not realized as originally conceived.
Dom Knigi / Home of the Book
Dom Knigi (Home of the Book) is a typical example of the early 30s concept of a building as an "architectural monument." In the 1920s, architect I. Golosov made a name for himself in the area of constructivism. The bids he submitted for the Palace of the Soviets and the People's Commissariat projects were highly original. Golosov's distinguishing features are defined as "symbolic romanticism."
L. Pavlov, designer of the Heroes' Arch, suggested siting his monument on Red Square. It was not built.
In 1947, the Soviet government issued a decree on the construction of high-rise buildings in Moscow. By the early 1950s, high-rise buildings had been built on Lenin Hills, Smolensk Square, Lermontov Square, Komsomolskaya Square, Kutuzovsly Prospect, Kotelnicheskaya Embankment, and Vosstaniya Square. Only the construction of a 32-storey administrative building in Zaryadye, slated as one of the main landmarks of the city center skyline, was not complete.
Behold what Moscow could have been if the projects of Stalin's architects had been realized. (via Rbth